Certain factors — such as a medical history of addiction or mental health issues — can put people at heightened risk for becoming addicted to opioid painkillers.
Signs of addiction appear when a patient stops taking the drug. Symptoms of withdrawal from opioid painkillers may include agitation, anxiety, cramping, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting.
While physical dependence on opioid painkillers can be difficult to shake, behavioral therapies and non-opiate medications can help reduce cravings and get you on the road to recovery.
When prescribed and managed by a doctor, opioid painkillers — including codeine, oxycodone (OxyContin), hydrocodone (Vicodin), morphine, methadone, and Percocet (a mix of oxycodone and acetaminophen) — can provide relief for people dealing with acute or chronic pain. Too often, though, their use gets out of control. Across the country, about 4.3 million people have misused opioid painkillers in the last month. If taking painkillers has become ingrained into your daily routine — even after the pain subsides — and is causing problems in your life, it may be time to address a dependency. Seek out help.
Recovery is possible.
If you or someone you know is using opioids, you should carry naloxone, a medication that can safely reverse the toxic effects of an overdose. Learn more.
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Opioid painkillers have a chemical makeup similar to heroin, which is why dependency can form over time. People who receive long-term opioid therapy for noncancer pain in a primary care setting are at especially high risk; up to 25 percent of these patients may struggle with addiction. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the following risk factors can make people more vulnerable to problems with prescription painkillers:
In some states, these risks are intensified by economic hardship, the overprescription of opioid painkillers, and the weak regulation of these drugs, allowing users to more easily obtain them.
A physical dependency on opioid painkillers can form quickly because the body gets used to the dulled sense the drugs create; also, after finishing a prescription or reducing use, some patients may begin to experience symptoms of withdrawal. Without these drugs, pain can seem just as bad as it was before starting a prescription — or may feel even worse.
Patients may experience agitation, anxiety, cramping, muscle aches, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms should be treated under a doctor’s care, but some patients instead self-medicate by continuing — and increasing — their use of opioids, even after their original prescriptions have run out.
If you notice any of the following behavioral changes in yourself or a loved one while taking prescription opioid painkillers, consider reaching out for support:
If you’re worried about someone you know, you can learn about how to encourage a heroin user to seek treatment. Remember that recovery is a process, but heroin treatment has been effective for many people.
Talk to your physician or physician anesthesiologist and consider all your options when treating pain. Non-opiate options may be as effective as prescription painkillers in relieving the pain — and may also reduce side effects and remove the risk of chemical dependency that is associated with opioid painkillers. These options include:
There are also non-opioid alternatives for anesthesia. If you’re planning on getting surgery, you can talk to a physician anesthesiologist about your options.
When dealing with opioid addictions, some doctors will suggest medication-assisted treatment, which can help alleviate the severe symptoms of withdrawal. Other approaches include various forms of detox and rehabilitation, such as counseling and behavioral therapies. Therapy isn’t one-size-fits-all; you may have to try different types to find the one that works for you. Refer to our general drug treatment page to see a full list of therapy types and descriptions.
Remember: Your doctor prescribed an opioid painkiller to you (and only you) for a specific reason. Never sell or share your pills, and store your medicine in a safe place, out of the reach of others. If you don’t finish the entire prescription, find a community drug take-back program or consult your doctor or pharmacy about safely disposing of any unused pain pills.